Privacy and AAL technology: A review of research and studies at the midterm of the visuAAL project

At the halfway point of our project, we have published a wealth of research papers and studies related to privacy, Assistive Living Technologies (AAL), and the challenges involved in using cameras to care for the elderly. The studies provide valuable insights and recommendations for anyone seeking to understand and improve privacy in technology. These papers delve into important issues related to privacy and AAL technologies, including nudity, criminal justice, and public perception. All the studies are available on open access academic research platforms like Zenodo and ResearchGate and have been disseminated at conferences and discussion forums in the sector.

The collection of sixteen papers and disseminations covers a wide range of topics related to the intersection of technology and human well-being, with a particular focus on AAL devices. The topics include privacy concerns in depth sensors, trust perceptions in the medical context, bias and fairness in computer vision applications, and public perceptions of AI. Furthermore, the papers examine specific applications of AAL technology, such as RITA, a privacy-aware toileting assistance designed for people with dementia, and automated vision-based toilet assistance for people with dementia. Finally, the collection includes a paper on the visuAAL Skin Segmentation Dataset, which aims to improve the accuracy of skin segmentation in AAL devices.

All of the studies discussed have been conducted by experts in their respective fields, making the research important and relevant to today's digital age. The open access availability of the studies provides an excellent opportunity for anyone interested in privacy and AAL technologies to access this valuable information and engage in debate and discussion.

  1. Depth and Thermal Images in Face Detection - A Detailed Comparison Between Image Modalities. In this paper, authors Wiktor Mucha and Martin Kampel provide a detailed comparison between depth and thermal images for face detection. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of each modality in terms of detection accuracy and speed, and provide insights into the strengths and limitations of each approach.

  2. Addressing Privacy Concerns in Depth Sensors. In this paper, Mucha and Kampel focus on privacy concerns related to depth sensors. They examine how depth sensors can be used to collect sensitive data, and propose privacy-enhancing techniques that can be used to mitigate these concerns. The authors also discuss the implications of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) on the use of depth sensors in active and assisted living devices.

  3. RITA: A Privacy-Aware Toileting Assistance Designed for People with Dementia. Authors Irene Ballester, Tamar Mujirishvili, and Martin Kampel introduce RITA, a privacy-aware toileting assistance system designed for people with dementia. The authors discuss the design and development of RITA, and evaluate its effectiveness in a user study. The paper also touches on the ethical considerations related to using AAL devices for people with dementia.

  4. Exploring Privacy: Mental Models of Potential Users of AAL Technology. In this paper, authors Caterina Maidhof, Martina Ziefle, and Julia Offermann examine the mental models of potential users of AAL technology, with a particular focus on privacy concerns. The authors discuss the factors that influence users' trust and privacy perceptions, and suggest strategies for improving user acceptance of AAL devices.

  5. Exploring Trust Perceptions in the Medical Context: A Qualitative Approach to Outlining Determinants of Trust in AAL Technology. Authors Sophia Otten and Martina Ziefle investigate trust perceptions in the medical context, with a focus on AAL technology. The authors conduct a qualitative study to explore the factors that influence users' trust perceptions, and discuss how these perceptions can be improved through the design of AAL devices.
  6. Beyond Privacy of Depth Sensors in Active and Assisted Living Devices. Mucha and Kampel's paper expands on the earlier discussion of privacy concerns related to depth sensors. The authors discuss the broader implications of these concerns for the design and development of AAL devices, and suggest approaches for mitigating privacy risks.

  7. Underneath Your Clothes: A Social and Technological Perspective on Nudity in The Context of AAL Technology. Authors Caterina Maidhof, Kooshan Hashemifard, Julia Offermann, Martina Ziefle, and Francisco Florez-Revuelta examine the social and technological perspectives on nudity in the context of AAL technology. The authors explore the ethical considerations related to using AAL devices that capture images of users' bodies, and discuss potential strategies for addressing these concerns.

  8. Privacy-enhancing Technologies for Active and Assisted Living: What Does the GDPR Say?In this paper, author Zhicheng He examines the implications of the GDPR for privacy-enhancing technologies in the context of AAL devices. The author discusses the key provisions of the GDPR and how they apply to the use of AAL devices, and provides recommendations for improving compliance with the regulation.

  9. Bias and Fairness in Computer Vision Applications of the Criminal Justice System. Authors Sophie Noiret, Jennifer Lumetzberger, and Martin Kampel examine the issue of bias and fairness in computer vision applications of the criminal justice system. The authors discuss the ethical considerations related to using computer vision algorithms in the criminal justice system, and suggest approaches for improving the fairness and transparency of these systems.

  10. The Nature of Misidentification With Privacy Preserving. Noiret, Ravi, Kampel, and Florez examine the issue of misidentification in the context of privacy-preserving systems. It provides an overview of the challenges associated with these systems and offers recommendations for improving the accuracy of these systems while still preserving privacy.

  11. A qualitative approach to the public perception of AI by Alexander Hick and Martina Ziefle explores the public's perception of AI through a qualitative study. The study analyzes the impact of various factors on the perception of AI, including transparency, explainability, trustworthiness, and social implications. The article also discusses the need for addressing ethical concerns and implementing appropriate regulations to ensure the responsible use of AI.

  12. Automated vision-based toilet assistance for people with dementia by Irene Ballester and Martin Kampel presents an automated toilet assistance system designed for people with dementia. The system uses a vision-based approach to detect user behavior and provide assistance accordingly. The article discusses the development of the system, including the sensor selection, user interface, and decision-making algorithms. The study evaluates the system's effectiveness in providing assistance to users with dementia.

  13. Information Obligation as a Balancing Tool in the Context of Active and Assisted Living by Maksymilian Kuźmicz explores the concept of information obligation in the context of active and assisted living. The article argues that information obligation can be used as a tool to balance the benefits of assistive technology with the concerns around privacy and security. The study analyzes the existing legal frameworks and proposes a model for implementing information obligation in the design and development of assistive technology.

  14. From Garment to Skin: The visuAAL Skin Segmentation Dataset by Kooshan Hashemifard and Francisco Florez-Revuelta presents the visuAAL Skin Segmentation Dataset, which provides a collection of images and ground truth data for skin segmentation. The dataset is specifically designed for the development of computer vision applications in the context of active and assisted living. The article discusses the creation of the dataset, its properties, and its potential applications.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Older Adults' Acceptance of Camera-Based AAL Technologies. Natalie Tham An Qi explores  the barriers and facilitators to the acceptance of camera-based AAL technologies by older adults. It provides insights into the factors that influence older adults' willingness to use these technologies and offers recommendations for addressing these barriers.
  16. Perceptions of older adults about the concept of privacy and in terms of video-based AAL technologiesTamara Mujirishvili et al. emphasise the significance of privacy in all aspects of human activity. AAL technologies offer healthcare benefits but also put privacy at risk. The authors suggest that the Privacy by Design approach and visual privacy preservation filters can help with data protection. The study focuses on how older adults perceive privacy, their attitudes towards AAL technology, particularly video-based AAL technology, and its impact on their privacy.

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